Dalmazia

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ALPHABET

A B Č D E F G I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V Z Y

Nouns

A Dalmatian noun has a gender (masculine or feminine) and is inflected for number (singular or plural). The plural is formed with the ending -i for masculine and -e for feminine nouns.

Articles

The indefinite article is yoin (one), whose feminine form is yoina.

Examples:

  • yoina kuosa - one house, a house
  • yoin jomno - one man, a man

The definite article for masculine nouns is el in singular and i in plural. The definite article for feminine nouns is la in singular and le in plural. Before place names in the dative case, the articles are used in the forms in telin telain teliand in tele or abbreviated as nelnelaneli and nele.

Examples:

  • Če sant el ? - What is it?
  • La sant yoina kuosa. - It is a house.
  • Jo sant la kuosa ? - Where is the house?
  • La kuosa sant in tela Čituot. - The house is in the city.
  • Jo sant el Juarbol ? - Where is the tree?
  • El Juarbol sant in tel buasc. - The tree is in the wood.

Adjectives

The adjectives are used before nouns and also have masculine and feminine gender and singular and plural number.

Examples:

  • Maura kuosa - Big house
  • La maura kuosa - The big house
  • Briv kavul - Fast horse
  • El briv kavul - The fast horse

Pronouns

Singular
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
  Ju
  I
 Second
 te
 you
 Third
 jal
 he
 
 jala
 she
Plural
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
 nu
 we
 Second
 vu
 we
 Third
 jali
 they
 
 jale
 they

Oblique Personal Pronouns

Singular
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
 me/main
 me
 Second
 toi
 their
 Third
 joi
 him
 
 joe
 her
Plural
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
 noi
 us
 Second
 voi
 you
 Third
 jai
 them

Possessive pronouns

Singular
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
 mi/maja
 my
 Second
 to/toa
 your
 Third
 de jal
 his
 
 de jala
 her
Plural
Person
 Pronoun
 Meaning
First
 nuester/nuestra
 our
 Second
 vester/vestra
 your
 Third
 de jali
 their
 
 de jala
 their

Prepositions

  • in - in
  • bas de - below
  • de - of
  • da - from, of
  • dri - behind
  • saupra - on
  • alič - at

Verbs

The Dalmatian language does not distinguish between the continuous and simple forms. The present tense is formed from the personal pronoun, the infinitive stem, and the present endings:


Singular


  1. -a, -uo
  2. -e
  3. -a, -uo


Plural


  1. -aime
  2. -aite
  3. -a, -uo


Example: favular (to speak)


Singular


  1. Ju favula (I speak, I am speaking)
  2. Te favule (Thou speakest, thou art speaking)
  3. Jal favula (He speaks, he is speaking)


Plural


  1. Nu favulaime (We speak, we are speaking)
  2. Vu favulaite (Ye speak, ye are speaking)
  3. Jali favula (They speak, they are speaking)


The past tense is formed from the personal pronoun, the infinitive stem, the suffixes -ua or -oua , and the present endings.


Singular


  1. Ju favlua (I was speaking, I spoke)
  2. Te favlue (Thou wast speaking, thou spokest)
  3. Jal favlua (He was speaking, he spoke)


Plural


  1. Nu favluaime (We were speaking, we spoke)
  2. Vu favluaite (Ye were speaking, ye spoke)
  3. Jali favlua (They were speaking, they spoke)


The future tense is formed from the infinitive form (ending in -ar, -ur, or -ro) and the future endings:


Singular


  1. -e
  2. -e
  3. -e


Plural


  1. -me
  2. -te
  3. -e


Examples:


Singular


  1. Ju favulare (I shall speak)
  2. Te favulare (Thou wilt speak)
  3. Jal favulare (He will speak)


Plural


  1. Nu favularme (We shall speak)
  2. Vu favularte (Ye will speak)
  3. Jal favulare (They will speak)


The passive is formed from the past participle (ending in -ait, -oit, or -uat) and the prefixes joi or jai.


Examples:


  1. joi nascoit (is born)
  2. jai glazait (is frozen)
  3. joi talyuat (is cut)


The Dalmatian language has also a conditional form:


  • Sta nuat el foit en maur gheluat, kve tota la jakva joi glazait.
  • Last night it was so cold, and all water has been frozen.


The imperative is formed from the infinitive stem and endings:


  • -ai - second person singular
  • -aite - second person plural


Examples:


  • duai! - give!
  • vedai ! - look!


The imperative can also be formed from the imperative form of the verb "to be" and the infinitive:


  • Saime vedar - Let us go
  • Sait fuot - Let it be


The verb "to be":


Infinitive: Saite


Singular


  1. Ju sai
  2. Te sante
  3. Jal sant


Plural


  1. Nu saime
  2. Vu saite
  3. Jali sant

Adverbs

Adverbs of place and direction:


  • luc - here
  • cauc - there
  • sois - upwards
  • sote - under
  • dri - behind


Adverbs of time:


  • aninč - before
  • dapu - after
  • diatremun - then
  • junkaura - again, still
  • adias - now